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"THIS LAND IS MINE"
The Belize's Drama
© Evelyn Richardson Escobar-Vega de Tirado


“Anyone can give up; it’s the easing thing in the world to do.
But to hold it together when everyone else would
understand if you fell apart, that’s true strength.”

-Dag Hammarskjold-
Former UN Secretary-General



Day Before Yesterday
(1550 to 1932)

Many centuries before Christ, up to the beginning of the XVI century, when Guatemala and Belize were discovered and conquered by the Spaniards, Mayans were the lords and owners of these lands. In 1550, the Spanish missionaries evangelized the Chol (Q´eqchi´) region up to Amatique Bay, what now is known as the half south of Belize.  The Pucté region at north was evangelized in 1618 by the Spanish missionaries that also evangelized in 1621 Mopanes and Tipues region in the central part of Belize.

The English pirate Peter Wallace, in 1638 established his operation center in an islet, “Cacina or Cocina Key”, in front of the Belize river mouth; this coast was used as a refuge for the English pirates until the middle of the XVIII century.  Later, the pirates went deeper in Belize’s territory to explore and commercialize the “Campeche wood”, which produced better earnings than the sea piracy.  So then, the English pirates were the ones who started deforestation in Belize’s territory.

In 1676, the Spanish missionary Fray José Delgado negotiated, before the Spanish authorities, the construction of a road across south and north Belize, linking the existing Mayan roads.  The road would start in Cahabon (Verapaz) and would end in Bacalar (Yucatan); one road of communication would be by land between Guatemala and Yucatan.  The Spaniards defended Belize’s territory in consecutive war events against the English pirates; in 1724 the pirates were defeated at Belize River and the surrounding areas by the Spanish military Antonio Cretayre y Torres.  Spain ordered that all battles should be leaded in Campeche, the center operation of the Barlovento Armada.  This armada of war was supported, most part, with the money of the Captaincy General of Guatemala.

The sergeant major, Melchor de Mencos, from Battalion of Militias of Guatemala City was appointed in 1753 to direct and recruit the militias that would go combat the English that had entered in many areas of the north region of the Captaincy General of Guatemala.  The first victory of Melchor de Mencos was on April 1754, when he defeated the English in Izabal, forcing them to evacuate the San Felipe castle.  Again in the Atlantic coast, he defeated the English capturing four vessels (brigantines) and continued to the north crossing the city of Flores and from there to the east, evacuating the enemy from the Fallabon.  Melchor de Mencos kept his mission and defeated the English that were in the rivers Nuevo and Hondo; the final victory was the conquered of San Felipe Bacalar, today Mexican territory known as Quintana Roo.  Years later, the government of Guatemala gave recognition to Melchor for his brilliant actions, naming the town Fallabón (from the Mayas Payab-bon) “Melchor de Mencos City”, named by the English Firebone.

Thanks to the Paris Agreement in 1763, Spain gave license to England to “cut down trees” in Honduras Bay, making a statement that it was just a concession, because Spain was the legitimate owner.  In the agreement is not mentioned a specific place or “establishment”, not even the name of Belize as territory, just as reference the river of such name.  In that time, the territory of Belize had about 500 persons as much as pirates, English timber merchants and slaves from Africa.  In 1778 the ecclesiastic authorities verified the first census of the population in the Captaincy General of Guatemala resulting 396,149 inhabitants, including Belize.

From 1774 to 1783 the Captain General of Guatemala, Matias de Galvez and the Governor of Yucatan, Roberto Bethancourt, cleaned the Atlantic coast of Yucatan and Central America from the English pirates.  With the taking of Omoa Castle and Roatan Island, Matias de Galvez covered himself with glory.

Thanks to the Versailles Agreement in 1783, the Spaniards gave permission to the English to continue cutting down “Campeche wood”, but still Spain had its right of sovereignty. 

In this agreement was established the granted area: (3,000) THREE THOUSAND square miles, located inside the Hondo River at north and Belize river at south.  In 1785, England requested an extension from the mouth of the Molino’s river 204 miles deeper and from there to the north of the Hondo River.  The Spaniards were surprised by the wished of England; this request would leave isolated the Yucatan peninsula from the Captaincy General of Guatemala.  It is good to mention that the Intendancy Regime was established by the Captaincy General of Guatemala from 1785 to 1787, leaving the south and central part of Belize’s territory inside of the La Verapaz Province.

In the London Agreement in 1786, Spain grants an extension to England of (1,170) ONE THOUSAND HUNDRED SEVENTY square miles were starting from the south up to the Sibun River.  The Spaniards again established to the English that this was not a territory concession or renouncement of sovereignty; this means that, on 1786 English only had permission to cut down Campeche wood in an area of (4155) FOUR THOUSAND HUNDRED FIFTY FIVE SQUARE MILES, located between the Hondo River at north, boundary with Yucatan province, and the Sibun River at south, boundary with La Verapaz City Hall.  These boundaries that were clearly established in the agreements of 1783 and 1786 are known as the Indelible Boundaries, because they can never be erased.

In the last agreement was declared the forbiddance for the English to fort and tenancy constructions of any kind of artillery; it also was forbidden the structure of any kind of civil or military government at all. To the establishment and verification of the boundaries were commissioned Enrique Grimarest from Spain and Marcus Dispard from England.  The deed was made and signed on August 11, 1787 after ending the landmark on Halova of the Walix river (as the English named the Belize river); it was agreed that once a year, a commission from both parts should go through the territory to verify if the agreements have been duly fulfill.

During the establishment of Belize there were a few black slaves that pirates brought from Jamaica.  The English pirates were the first choppers of wood; they cut down the Campeche wood because no Indians worked for them.  They also established the first wooden camps between Nuevo and Belize or Walix rivers.  As the English went deeper, the Mayas move back to the central or south mountain range or to the northeast dense jungle of the territory.  The bay men, as were known the pirates when they became timber merchants, established a system to control the distributions of land for the cutting down of Campeche wood and the establishment of work camps.  This system was called “Location Laws” which stated that, the first person to claim any place for the cutting down and work camp, as long as he made use of it, have the right of “property”.  In 1787 English, even having forbidden by the Spaniards to establish a civil government, chose seven deputies to form a government of bay men.  These deputy-magistrates, to avoid any competence in the land control, added a requisite to the Location Laws, in which, the applicant should be owner, at least, of four slaves.

The “Bay Men” elaborated a map that signed the Spanish concessions of 1783 and 1786.  Such map was known as “The Bayman Map”.

Juan Francisco Gual in 1789 presented to the Spanish government a report of his annual visit to the English settlement in Belize’s territory.  In the aforementioned report, Gual reported that in the settlements were more than 3,200 persons, in which ones 650 were English, about 2,000 black Africans which majority was slaves and the others were Creole inhabitants.  Belize River had 2,000 inhabitants that live in poverty, and in the Cacina Key only 13 families, and the others live scattered in the timber merchant camps.  The Mayan villages of the coast had disappeared, a few hamlets were left and the regional commerce was paralyzed by the fear of been captures by the English and be sold in Jamaica as slaves.

The Spaniards did not have any commercial relationship with the English settlements.  The English trading enterprises started to invest in a great manner in the cutting down and extraction of mahogany, which require a longer extension of land than the Campeche wood, much more capital and a great number of choppers.  The identification, cutting down and extraction of mahogany was a work that required ability and lot of strength, that is why, the English took slaves from western Africa, specifically from Ghana, Mali and Sonjay to Belize; from these places came the ancestors of today majority of Belizean.

In 1790, Rafael Llobet visited the settlements in Belize’s territory and described with great detail the settlement located in the mouth of Belize river, the mainly harbor of the territory.  In the report he detailed the movement and the exportation of wood products, in which the

Mahogany took the second place after the Campeche wood.  His report recommends the reinforcement of the Bacalar fort in Yucatan, he was not convinced about the English good intentions, and enclosed a map in which he showed the location of the English anchored shipping at the coast.

In 1791 fifteen English controlled the 80% of slave trade in the territory.  England got from Belize more earnings from any of all his colonies in America.  The English in 1796 had constructed a fort supplied with artillery on the mouth of the Belize River and they already managed the territory as a colony.

In that moment, England declares war against Spain, who was allied to France; and the Spaniards prepared an expedition to Belize appointing Antonio O’Neill, Captain General of Yucatan, as the chief of the expedition.  The English knew that the Spaniards were preparing themselves for an expedition, prepared themselves with the help that came from Jamaica.  In 1798 a naval skirmish happened between the Cacina Key and the mouth of Belize River, but when the Spaniards saw how well supplied were the English a few cannon shots they released and went back to Veracruz.  This battle was named by the English as Saint George, in honour to the day of the aforementioned saint; and the Key was renamed as Saint George Key as gratitude to the conqueror of Belize.  What it is funny, is that in this great battle no human or material lost were registered.  The Saint George Battle has been used by the English as a claim of their right of conquer (by force of arms) over the territory of Belize, but they did not notice that on the east-north of Peten they had penetrated and had built chopping camps of mahogany and others precious woods, a totally violation of the statements on the agreements from 1783 and 1786.

During the XVIII century, the sea commerce was fundamental for the English colonization in America.  England had lost its great colony (1776), United Estates of America, immediately designed a strategy to keep dominating and controlling the commerce of the colonies that still pertain to the powerful Spain.  In Belize’s territory, neither the English government nor the English choppers fulfill the agreements and the mentioned always laugh at the Spanish government and authorities.  At the end of the XVIII century, the English had established wood camps at the shore of the rivers Bravo, Booths, Azul, Santa Maria and Chanchich.  This occupation was absolutely and totally out of the limits that were established by the Spaniards, this was because of the demand of mahogany, which started to substitute the Campeche wood in the European market.

At the beginning of the XIX century in Belize’s territory was 4,000 inhabitants, which 2,500 were black slaves (this number increase because of the wood exploitation), 500 English and the rest of inhabitants were transported to Belize from La Mosquitia.  In 1802 “Garifunas” (black Caribbeans) started to come to Belize from the Bay Islands and de La Mosquitia, in which also they settled themselves on the coast of Izabal.

The Peace Agreement between France and England was signed in 1802 in Amiens, France.  In said agreement England compromised itself to return to Spain, as an ally of France, all possessions and colonies that had been taken during the war, less the Trinidad Island that was in front of the Venezuela’s coast.  The English protected on the agreements of 1783 and 1786 do not return Belize to Spain, instead they continue as usufructuaries of one part of the territory, from the Hondo River by the north to the river Sibun by the south.  In 1805, the Viscount of Castlereagh, Ministry of War and England Colonies, declared that, the Establishment of Belize was “inside of foreign territory and jurisdiction”, consequently not a English colony.

The English government forbade the slave trade in the Establishment of Belize in 1807.

Later, England became an ally to Spain in its fight against France, who had invade Spanish territory, with the pretext of the war of Portugal and because had installed as king to José, “Pepe Botellas”, brother of Napoleon Bonaparte.  The Spaniards, fighting for their independence war (from France), they had separated themselves from their colonies in America and the communication with these ones practically did not exist anymore.  In the colonies movements of independence started, taking advantage of the differences of control between the colonial government and the metropolis.

In that time, England the owner of the seas, transport to Brazil the Portuguese royal family that was escaping from France.  As reward, the English got a naval base in Rio de Janeiro and in the Brazilian coast “puertos francos” for their help.  England, the Perfidious Albion, as the French refers to it, took advantage of the isolation of the Spanish colonies in the American continent to structure its plan to displace Spain from America.

Meanwhile, in the Gulf of Honduras the Spaniards afraid from the English desire to conquer Bacalar in Yucatan, fortified and established a garrison between the mouths of the Hondo and Nuevo Rivers.

English could not go through the north in 1812, began without any authorization, the cutting down at the south of the Sibun River, the boundary established by the Spaniards.  Meaning that, on that date the English began to occupy the region of Belize’s territory with the only purpose of cutting down and extract wood, said territory pertain to the La Verapaz City Hall.  The Spanish authorities of Yucatan knew that all the territory from the south part of the Hondo River; pertain to the Captaincy General of Guatemala, the one in charge of stopping the English advances.

When the monarchy was restored, in 1814 Spain signed an agreement with England, in which were revalidate the agreements between both powerful nations related with the permissions and granted areas in usufruct for the chop down in the Spanish territory of Belize.

England supported the independent movements in Spanish speaking America.  For Mexicans they supplied rifles and munitions, to Argentineans military consultancy and armaments, to Venezuelan ships, soldiers and officers.

Before the independence, the territorial extension of the Captaincy General of Guatemala was of 322,000 (three hundred twenty-two thousand) square miles; the administrative division was: 2 Townships, 8 City Halls, 1 Governor’s office and 4 town councils.  The R. Holmes Laurie’s map, English admiralty cartographer, published in London in 1820, which locate the English Establishment of Belize: to the north the Hondo River limiting the province of Yucatan and to the south the Sibun River limiting the La Verapaz and appointing it as “British Territory.”

Until the independence of Central America, the English government still recognized the Spanish sovereignty over Belizean territory and the boundaries established by the agreements, knowing the advances and penetrations of the settlers at south and west (La Verapaz and El Petén) of the boundaries established in the Spanish concessions.  In the territory of Belize in 1820, the slaves, still in his majority Africans, revolted again. They were against the English landowner; the rebellion was awkward and for the foremen and militia was very difficult to clam it down.  The English commercial politic was based upon mercantilist theory, in which the colonies only have to produced raw material for the metropolis, then buy the same article already manufactured.

In 1821, the Captaincy General of Guatemala independence itself from Spain, and inherited all the rights that were over the territories, which enclaves the “English Establishment of Belize.”  This means, that the Independent Republic of Central America inherited from Spain the rights of sovereignty established on the agreements, between Spain and England in 1783 and 1786 over the region between the Hondo and Sibun River located in Belize’s territory.

At this time, the coalition of powerful European nations was formed and known as the Holly Alliance, the one that wanted to help Spain to recover its empire in America, nuling the new nations that were coming to independent life.  The president of the United States, James Monroe, in 1823 proclaimed the doctrine, that his name entitle, to do face to the possible threat from Europe and to an extension of the politic system of the Holly Alliance in America.  Monroe’s doctrine announced that America was not opened any more to the European colonization and if any powerful nation from the old continent try to oppress, dominate or intervene the destiny of new nations, the United States would take the same as a direct hostile event against them.  This doctrine for the United States was a defense and for self preservation, vital for the peace and security of the nation that declare the impediment to establishment of powerful European nations in America.

In the first Guatemalan Constitution, as a Federal State of Central America, in 1825, is described the territory was conforming the State: “To the north the localities of Chiquimula with Izabal and San Felipe Castle in the Dulce Gulf, Verapaz and Peten.  To the south...”

The aforementioned Constitution had La Verapaz with its coast over the Honduras Gulf, at south the Sibun River.  In the Registry of British Honduras was an English map from 1826 that marks the tree zones of English occupation in Belize’s territory.  The first one correspond to the Versailles Agreement in 1783, the second to the extension granted in the London Agreement since 1786, and the third one from the territory occupied up to the Garston River by the “right of conquer” in the Saint George’s Key in 1789.  In the Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Agreement from 1826 between England and Mexico, the Article 14 says the Hondo River as boundary with Mexico and the territory of Belize.  In said agreement was established that in the importation and exportation of the products only could be done in English vessels.

The United States had straightly declared that the Monroe’s Doctrine was a unilateral pronouncement and do not establish a system or mechanism of international cooperation between the new American republics, to defend of support their principals.  With such backgrounds, the General Simon Bolivar invited all new governments – previously Spanish colonies – to a meeting, proposing the creation of a system “which sublime authority could be able to lead the politic of our governments, which influence should keep evenness of principals and which only name should end with our disputes.” The first International American Congress was held in Panama in July 1826, and the republics that were in the event:

The Great Colombia (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama), Mexico, Peru and Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica).  The distinguished delegates from Chile, Bolivia and United States did not come to the meeting on time; Paraguay and the Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata invitation.  Brazil – who had independenced itself from Portugal – appointed to his distinguished delegate but they forgot to send him; England and Netherlands were in the capacity of observers.  The representatives of the new Spanish America nations, agreed to subscribe an Everlasting Union, Alliance and Confederation between the Republics of the Great Colombia, Central America, Peru and Mexico.  The agreements had 31 articles and one additional supplementary; according to the Article 21, the parties were bind to support the integrity of their respective territories and oppose to any sign of colony establishing in them.  It can be said, that such Confederation was the pioneer of what we know today as the Organization of America States (OAS).

The Central America government in 1827, with the purpose of protect the boundaries of “inheritance”  (Belize’s territory), send a cruiser to such coasts to push away the English ships that sail in forbidden zones at south of Sibun River.  In 1830 from Mexico to Argentina eleven independent nations, Spanish-Speaking except Brazil, were formed, With the Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Agreement, England had the internal and external economy control, as soon as they recognize the new nations as sovereignty states.

The State Chief of Guatemala, Mariano Galvez, in 1832 ordered M. Rivera Maestre to elaborate two maps of Belize’s territory; one signing the agreement concessions from 1783 and 1786 in the territory and the other signing the abusive English advances.

It is worth to mention that in 1833 England forcibly occupied the Malvinas Islands of Argentina, during the government of tyrant Juan Manuel de Rosas who did nothing to recover them.

England in 1833 enacts the slave abolition in the Establishment of Belize.  The English government carefully plans the slave freedom; the purpose was to protect the interests of their landowners-subordinates.  The free slaves were forced to work for five years –as training- in the wooden camps, and the wooden exploitation owners were compensated with 20 millions of sterling pounds, as a compensation for their production lost.

The government of Guatemala notice the real rapacity and voracity of the English people, when The Colonization Writ of La Verapaz was approved in 1834; the timber merchant pirates had advanced – exploitation and spoliation- from south up to the Garston River and from the west south in La Verapaz by the west of Peten.  England protested by the Colonization Writ of La Verapaz and do no allow the establishment of a wooden company, in where Guatemala had all right when they had granted the license for cutting down and trading wood at south of the Sibun River in La Verapaz jurisdiction.  The Federal Government of Central America had to interfere and send Juan Galindo (from Ireland of Spaniard origin), as envoy extraordinary of Central

America before England government, to claim the obvious Guatemalans rights violations.  Mr. Galindo went first to Washington, United States, hopping find help in for his mission; he could not achieve such thing and departed to England.  The English government in 1834 send to Central America as his representative Frederick Chatfield; this character, tried to impose to General Morazan, who was ruling Central America, that the boundaries of the English Establishment of Belize were expanded up to the Sarstun River; General Morazan, with courage and steady hand, rejected such insolence.  When Juan Galindo came to London at the beginning of 1835, the English people already knew all the aspects, incidents and events that happened between Morazan and Chatfield, so he was not received, not even to “drink tea.”  The mission was a totally failure.

On March 14, 1835 Belize’s government approved the borderline limit of Garbutt´s Falls, in Belize’s river near to Fallabon.

England knowing that Guatemala had inherited Belize 14 years ago, in 1835 with cynicism tried to get from Spain the title deed of said territory.  The English people, deliberately and in cold blood, planned to take possession of Central America using their consul Chatfield to instigate and manipulate the civil wars between the Federal states and Belize’s superintendent, a Mr. Cockburn, so they could advance and occupy up to Sarstun River.  In 1836, according to the Secretary of the England Colonies, George Gray, the establishment of Belize expands from south up to Sarstun River and by the west up to Garbutt´s Falls meridian in Belize’s river; an extension of almost 3 times more permitted to usufruct by Spain.

Guatemala, with the purpose of integrate Belize inside a national area, in 1837 summoned a Constituent Assembly and the government is authorized to invite the Belizean to be represented in such constituent.  The English people almost got a heart attack by the audacity of Guatemala with such invitation to their Belizean vassals; indeed the same did not attend.

The English government politic until 1838, related with the Establishing of Belize, was granting free lands, but only to those that were English people or companies.  At the moment to declare legally free to slaves and to avoid that these ones were favored with such law and could organized themselves in an independent camp, this one is modified and is established a sell land system (1 sterling pound per acre) therefore, the workers –slaves- could not buy long extensions of land in such expensive price.  The same year, the English colonial government replaces in Belize the slave production system by the capitalist production, meaning that, by law all workers had to earn a salary.

To trade with the new American republics over the Pacific coast, England had to take the Strait of Magellan route (at the south of the American continent) which was long and dangerous.  Therefore, England decided to build a channel across the ocean and though that the most viable place was Nicaragua, and sent the engineer John Bailly, Tenant of the Royal Family, to do the first study and devise the channel that will join the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.

In 1839 the English people crowned at the Jamaica Island as King of La Mosquitia, to Jorge Guillermo, grandchild of the first Misquito Chief – Carlos de Castilla – who had been manipulated and appointed by them for many years.  It was convenient to England to control La Mosquitia (region along of Nicaragua’s coast in the Atlantic) and then having it secured by the ending of the channel construction.

The Federal Republic of Central America was rescinded in 1839.  Basically, as a consequence of many civil wars and the intervention of the English people leaded by the consul Chatfield, the ones considered the union of the Central America's isthmus as an obstacle to their imperialist interests and, more than anything their ambition to control the across the ocean route.

The first Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala was issued in 1843 and describes the Republic territory as follows:
“The State include the old departments of Verapaz, Chiquimula, Sacatepequez and Guatemala, and also the departments of Los Altos, recently contained by the State under to the Constituent Assembly writ on August 13, 1840,” in such Constitution La Verapaz appears coasted over the Honduras coast.

According to the La Mosquitia Protectorate imposed in 1845 and with a super diplomacy, economic power, colonies at the Caribbean and territorial occupancy at Central and South America, England the Queen of the Seas, consolidate her imperialism at the American continent.  In Central America the English people controlled Guatemala’s Belize territory, the Bay Islands of Honduras and the region from La Mosquitia, Nicaragua.

By the time of mahogany commerce was in his highest point in the Establishment of Belize and the English wooden companies could not allow that their workers (former slaves) ask to be paid in advanced to buy an acre of land, for that reason they pressure the colonial government so they could handle the situation.  England issued a Settlement Act that could help to the land purchases issued no allowing the workers to leave the wooden chop, in such act was considered as a crime that a worker receive payment in advance and do not fulfill with his job; the punishment for such crime was forced labor and a fine.

In 1847 Guatemala and England signed a Friendship, Commercial and Navigation Agreement, in which is not mentioned of the English establishment of Belize.  Why Guatemala did not clarify in that opportunity the boundary limits of Belize, as much by land as maritime?

England also with the purpose of usurping Yucatan, in 1847 provoked the “Castes War”. The Mayans from the peninsula, rebel themselves against the whites and creoles.  England helped the Mayans by supplying them with weapons and necessary war provisions from the Establishment of Belize, and the English government supported them so they could be independent from Mexico.   The result was not good for England, when the Castes war in Yucatan started, the Belize’s Mayans also went against the English people, they were considered as usurpers of territory.

In that time the United States and Mexico were in war and it was when the Mexicans started to call “gringos” to the Americans, while the American soldiers went through the north and center of Mexico they sang a song, very popular in the time, named Green Grow the Lilacs, when the Mexicans heard the two initial words –grin go- by the sound they formed the word gringo.  The gringos were interested to keep control in Yucatan so they appointed a consul in the Establishment of Belize; the same was accepted and recognized by England.  United States, having their consul inside the territory, clearly recognized the Establishing of Belize awarded by Spain to England in 1783 and 1786.  In fact, Mexico perfectly knew that all Belize’s territory pertained to Guatemala, but it was more important to them to control the gunrunning between Belize and Yucatan, in addition they also appointed their consul in 1848 in the Establishment of Belize.

The United States had celebrated free transition agreements with Honduras, Nicaragua and Colombia, but during the gold fever in California and Oregon that many business men saw the importance to open a channel across the ocean, could been in the Panama’s isthmus on Colombia’s territory or by Nicaragua. England in 1848 took by force the mouth of the San Juan River in Nicaragua, and United States send to Nicaragua to Mr. Daniel L. White, a representative of the stronger American construction company, to get in any way, the concession for the channel construction.  Therefore, two greater powerful nations with extensional politics were fighting the channel construction across the ocean in Nicaragua:  the great teacher, England, and his outstanding pupil, United States.  Eventually, United States won, due in 1849 the Plenipotentiary Ministry of the United States, George Squier, came to Nicaragua to fulfill the negotiations of the channel construction, thirty days after he signed the first channel agreement.  England, realizing about such agreement, caused a rumpus and declared that they would not allow the construction of such channel without the permission of the La Mosquitia King who was the owner of the mouth of the San Juan River.  Surprisingly, Costa Rica cried out and declared that they were the authentic owner and was not Nicaragua; this situation made boundary problems between Nicaragua and Costa Rica.  El Salvador did not want to fall behind, liberal Salvadorians accused the harmful English consul, Chatfield, of incite the ending of the Central America Federation.  Chatfield, as revenge, ordered the military occupation of the Amapala harbor in Fonseca Gulf and the economic blocking of all harbors in El Salvador.

England knew that the new Central America Republics would be an easy prey for expansionism of United States, their new rival.  The United States, their former colony, was not any more the original 13 states; they had bought to Spain the territory of Florida; had purchased the territory of Oregon; had joined Texas and taken California and New Mexico from Mexico.  The United States wanted to expand them no matter how, and did not see as a good thing that England was expanding in Central America; nor the protection of La Mosquitia on Nicaragua, the advances at Belize of Guatemala, the military occupation in Amapala harbor at El Salvador and the taken of the Bay Islands at Honduras.

On April 1850, the United States and England signed an Agreement (Clayton-Bulwer) and in said agreement both nations jointly assured the neutrality in across the ocean channel if it were constructed at Nicaragua, and also they were compromised to not fortify it neither be exclusively controlled by one of them and do not obtain any territory in Central America.  In my opinion, in the aforementioned agreement both the United States and England were clearly recognizing two Belizes:

1.    The English Establishment, by Spanish conssesions on 1783 and 1786, in which boundaries were clearly specify between Hondo River and Sibun River (indelible boundaries), and

2.    The region between the rivers Sibun and Sarstun pertain to the Guatemalans department of La Verapaz.

The agreement was ratified by the United States, which was conditioned by England to be excluded the agreement of Establishment of Belize and its premises.  Mr. Clayton, with the purpose that the United State Senate could accept the agreement, had declared that Belize was not territory of Central America.  Finally, United States approved the agreement ratification from England, but without affirming or denying England’s rights over Belize’s territory; thus, gringos knew that Guatemala had inherited from Spain the sovereignty of such territory.

On December 1850, the government of Guatemala issued Decree No. 49, which order to introduce the documents of whose could obtained concessions of lands for the wood chop at the north coast, from the Sibun River up to the Tinto River including Izabal Lake, Motagua and Santo Tomas.  When Guatemala issued such act it was claiming the right of territorial rights over Belize and it was willing to recognized England’s authorized occupation by Spain, in the Establishment of Belize; this means, the region between Hondo and Sibun River, but not any subject to recognize the region between Sibun and Sarstun Rivers.  For England such act was not important: they already had taken possession of the entire region at the south of the Sibun River and they were military protected in case Guatemalans wanted to expel them.

The United States started a competence in 1851; they were negotiating before France and England government, so a protectorate could be established in all Central America, Haiti and Santo Domingo.  Gringos were putting pressure on the English people, according to them to fulfill the Clayton-Bulwer agreement, making England leave Roatan Island at Honduras and La Mosquitia at Nicaragua.  England in 1852 proclaimed the colony of the Bay Islands, formed by Roatan Islands, Bonaca, Utila, Barbarat, Helen and Morat.  The proclamation of the colony of the Bay Islands was issued by the Belize Colonial Secretariat Office and signed by the entitle; that is how England showed that Belize was not considered anymore as an establishment for wooden chop, however as their most productive colony in the continent.

In 1854 England decreed the first Constitution for Belize and established a Legislative Assembly of eighteen elected members by the English landowners.  Indeed, a kind of popular democracy just for 100% pure English people, excluding former slaves and Mayas.   Four English companies, James Hydn, Young & Harrison, Carmichael and Edward Sheldon totally controlled the mahogany business at Belize and were the owners of the 90% of the lands of such territory.  Those companies had very strong investments in Belize, or we can say in their colony, and put pressure, demanded or suborned the English government so they could, in any way, legalize their totally occupation in the territory.  The Unite States government keep putting pressure over England so they leave Belize and the American ambassador in London, James Buchanan in 1854 declared that, England was not only still occupating the region between Hondo and Sibun Rivers, indeed they had extended to south up to the Sarstun River, 1½ latitude degree under the limit described and allowed by the Spanish concession.  The English Ministry, Lord Clarendon answered that, the old agreements made with Spain can not be fulfill, referring to the boundaries, because the last agreement of 1786 had been modify by the posterior wars, in which England had extended her boundaries.  But what Lord Clarendon did not say was that as a result of the Amiens peace in 1892, English people had been bind to return to Spain the occupy territories, in which Belize was one of them, and they did not give it back.

England could occupy the region – from Sibun to Sarstun River- because Guatemala since his independence from Spain as a State of the Central America Federation, did not settle his terms according to the law in Belize’s territory and never established an administrative-politic structure in such territory.

In 1885 were 12 thousand habitant in Belize, most of them were Mayans (Mopanes and Chol-Q´eqchi´), mulattos, and only were 500 English people, which were foremen, dealers, colonial government officers and militiamen.  The English occupation in the territory was an evident economic pressure, the strongly demand of raw material, specially the mahogany, and the slave commerce.

England was inflexible about not abandoning the occupied territories in Central America, as well as the President Pierce of the United States was. He wanted the American expansion and especially over the ocean channel in Nicaragua. Those were the factors that caused these powers were stressed one to another.

The American filibuster Willian Walker with two hundred Americans hired by liberal Nicaraguans came to Nicaragua in 1855 to fight against the conservatives.  In 1856 Walker also fight and proclaimed himself as president of Nicaragua with the approval and blessing of the president Pierce of the United States and was immediately recognized by the American government.  Walker reestablishes the slavering in Nicaragua with the objective of having labor force secure for the channel across the ocean construction and also for the slaves trade.  In this epoch, in United States a slave cost $1,500 and can be bought at Cuba for $600 and in Africa for $100. 

On Belize’s territory and in the Bay Islands, the slave traders make a fortune with impunity on the importation of smuggling slavery, to then be exported to the slavevory States of United States.  In this way was consolidated the expansion and intervention of the United States in Central America.  The Central American map, from the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee of United States, elaborated by the Coast Guard Office on March 1856, marks the territory of Belize divided in two parts, it means, in two Belizes:

•    England part, from Hondo to Sibun River.
•    Guatemala part, from Sibun to Sarstun River.

The Unite States government intervention recognized Walker as president of Nicaragua to assure the construction of across the ocean channel; this made a great commotion in Europe and America.  Chile and Peru signed a defensive ally against the United States.  England, during this time, was in war against Russia – the Crimea War- and the United States was in civil war, the Kansas war started the civil or secession war.  To England was very important to defend Belize’s possession, because it was near to her other Caribbean colonies, even at expenses of the channel, because the gringos had the construction concession plus having Walker as president of Nicaragua.  In Central America the situation was red-hot, the president of Guatemala Rafael Carrera, been before the Walker aggression, signed in 1856 the Central America sovereignty of defense agreement with El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, and immediately started to prepare for war against the filibusters.  Both, gringos and English people could not initiate a confrontation because they had enough problems in their hands, United States with his slavery states and England fighting in Crimea; so, instead of fight they decided to share and eat the “Central American cake.”

On October 17, 1856 the United States and England signed the Dallas-Clarendon agreement, in which instead England leave La Mosquitia (at Nicaragua) and the Bay Islands (at Honduras), the United States will recognize the possession of England over the Establishment of Belize.  Also they agreed that, the boundaries over the west (at Petén), in 1850, should be established and set as an agreement between England and Guatemala, before two years after been ratified.  England could not sign a territorial cession agreement because the Clayton-Bulwer agreement of 1850 forbidden it, in which neither the United States or England could occupy or exercise authority over any part of Central America; therefore, this limitation made English people to invent that the agreement with Guatemala be related with boundaries.  So simple, that with a legal facade and of two writes, and for been advisable for their interests, United States and England have a territory that belongs to other.  What did Guatemala to such violation of his dignity as a sovereignty nation?  Nothing, did it claim the violation of its territory integrity? No; the president of Guatemala the General Rafael Carrera, was too busy organizing his army against Walker and expel him from Central America isthmus.  Maybe, in the time in which the American president Pierce – an expansionist fan – end his presidential time, it was convenient to the government of Guatemala to wait for the next president so they could negotiate in a peaceful way, England could recognized their occupation on Belize in the region between Hondo and Sibun River, could staying as usufructuary or should evacuate the complete territory.

In 1857, the Central America integrated army with Salvadorian, Honduran, Costarican and Guatemalan troops, the last ones first commanded by the former president General Mariano Paredes and later by the colonel and lawyer Jose Victor Zavala, defeated the American filibuster William Walker.

James Buchaman took the presidency of the United States in 1857.  This man when he was ambassador in England (1854) had declared that the English people had extended themselves in the territory of Belize to the south up to the Sarstun River, in a lower limit established and allowed by the Spanish concession.  The president Buchanan ordered to his Secretary of State to continue with the procedure with England to liquidate the Clayton-Bulwer agreement of 1850 and the last Dallas-Clarendon agreement of 1856.

The English people sent to Guatemala in 1858 to a delegate to initiate the negotiations related with the boundaries agreement that should be subscribed between Guatemala and England.  The English government did not want United States be directly involved in the agreement negotiations because they were afraid that they could support Guatemala, just for been a small and week nation; in addition, the Dallas-Clarendon agreement of 1856 had not been ratified by United States neither England, consequently, it had not any legal or moral value.  The president Buchanan had told that, if the United States had recognized the English sovereignty on Belize (only the region awarded by Spain), it was not because England had possession rights over the territory, indeed the United States had done it with a “generous spirit of concession” (literal).

England appointed Mr. Wyke as Plenipotentiary Ministry and Guatemala appointed Mr. Pedro Aycinena, Counsel of the State and Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the final settlement of the supposed boundaries in Belize.  In my opinion, as Guatemala was cornered by the negotiation incapacity of Aycinena and lake of seeking help to the United States, only demanded a compensation for the territorial grant; England did not have any other way that just add to the agreement a compensatory stipulation, Article 7.

On April 1859, Guatemala and England signed the Aycinena-Wyke boundaries agreement – a territorial grant –, and was ratified by the government of Guatemala on May 1st on the current year (the day after been signed).  The Article 7, or compensatory stipulation of the mentioned agreement, says that Guatemala and England agreed to establish a directly communication, through a road, between Belize and Guatemala City.  The agreement was introduced to the Counsel of State and the counsels Pedro J. Valenzuela and Jose Antonio Azmitia voted against such approval.  The vote against of the agreement from Pedro J. Valenzuela was reasoned as follows: “There is no security for Guatemala on the vagueness of the Article 7, and England never fulfill with the agreed.”  Pedro J. Valenzuela was fortuneteller and a prophet, he did not have to visit a sorcerer from Boca del Monte, to guess that England was not going to fulfill with the agreed.  Also Antonio de Aguirre voted against, explaining that the agreement was inopportune because they should wait the unresolved agreement with Spain so Guatemala could have a better strength in its rights.  Others declared that the Executive Power did not have the authority to celebrate a boundaries agreement and for that reason, the agreement was unconstitutional.

The United States’ ambassador in Guatemala, Beverly L. Clarke, on October 1859 (five months after the agreement was signed) sent to the minister of Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, Pedro Aycinena a SOLEMN PROTEST:

“1. Against the Aycinena-Wyke agreement on April 1859 between Guatemala and England, as a clear and evident violation of the instrument, spirit and provisions of the Clayton-Bulwer Covenant of 1850 between the United States and England.

2. Against the behavior of Guatemala’s government that cautiously reserved and hide to the American representative all knowledge of unresolved negotiation that was affecting in essential way the interests and American government politics, deprived to defend its rights and support its politic.

3. Against the concession of possession and entitle of and to Belize’s territory of Guatemala’s government to England according to the Aycinena-Wyke agreement on April 1859, opposing to all Central America Federation history and also opposing to the entire history of Guatemala.”

The ambassador Clarke asked to be send copies of his protest to the Legislative, Executive and Judicial bodies and the original should be kept as a relic in the Chancellery Registry.

The American ambassador Beverly Clarke, at the moment to introduce his solemn protestation to Guatemala’s government against the subscribed agreement (Aycinena-Wyke)  between Guatemala and England on April 30,1859, clearly detailed the position of his government related to the agreements that Guatemala had made with the English people, making a great emphasis on the stipulated limitation in the Clayton-Bulwer agreement of 1850, in which neither the United States or England could take or exercise control over any part of Central America.  Also described in detail, the politic of his government related with the redundancies Guatemalan’s protests for the English advances over the south and west of the concenssed region by Spain to England and inherited to Guatemala.

In the last Dallas-Clarendon agreement of 1856, subscribed between United States and England, was been stipulated that Guatemala and England should arrange and establish the west boundaries of Belize’s territory.  In my opinion, that element was made with the only purpose of legally and definitively grant from Guatemala, the territory that was concessed by Spain to England, the region located between Hondo and Sibun River (indelible boundaries), and then be established the limits of English Belize and Guatemalan Belize with the boundary lines, as it was marked in the cartographic map of Central America in 1856, done it with official documentation from the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States and executed by the American Coast Guard Office.  The Americans could not grant “someone else’s territory” and at the same time they wanted to build their channel; to do it, they had to neutralized England helping Guatemala in the Belize’s granting for England, and then England with it part of Belize, dully entitled and registered, could evacuate the other regions that were in its possession, at Honduras and Nicaragua.

Why Guatemala signed the supposed boundaries agreement or convention (Aycinena-Wyke) on April 30, 1859?

The letter that the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Pedro Aycinena, sent to the Guatemalan ambassador in France, Juan de Francisco Martin, on May 3, 1859 three days after signed such agreement, tells a sad and painful truth:

"I want Your Excellency to know that on day 30 of the past month (refers to April) a Covenant referred to the borders with British Honduras was signed between the Republic of  Guatemala and His British Majesty. Mr. Wyke received from H. M. special powers and Your Excellency the President conferred me as he will it, powers of the same class for adjusting this convention Mr. Wyke show me confidentially his instructions, by which I imposes my self about His Majesty desire that this affairs to be settled in such terms that did not give place to difficulties or complications with other governments. For that, Your Excellency, Count Malmesbury said to be confident of our government friendship for Great Britain. Mr. Wyke received at the same time a draft of the convention willing to be adjusted. As for His British Majesty government was not convenient to speak in the treat about granting territories, what would give place to questions with other nations, a simple recognizing of the status quo was asked to us related to the borders between our republic and the British establishment of Belize.

As Your Excellency could suppose I made to Mr. Wyke all the pertinent observations, exposing by long the righteous of our rights and asking, at least, some compensation for abandoning them. Mr. Wyke instructions were so terminant, than he does not believe himself to be authorized, against his good will, to admit my points. After many conferences, we were to agree in adding the Article 7 for the convention, that was not in the draft remitted to Mr. Wyke, and as Your Excellency will see, a compensation for abandoning our rights over the territories un due occupied by the Belize population.....In that way we must consider as a advantage to have defined the borders between the Republic and the Belize establishment, to avoid further new advances,,,
(F. Pedro Aycinena)

Pedro de Aycinena says in his letter to the ambassador Martin that Mr. Wyke showed to him his confidential instructions, in which Her British Majesty wishes that such issue should be arranged in such way that no difficulties or complications could exist with other governments: with other governments, England was specifically referring to United States government.  What England wanted was that, Guatemala made the Belize’s territory grant, by its own, without the advice of anyone or be supported by the Americans.  Aycinena wrote in his letter that, to keep the relationship between Guatemala and England, earl Malmesbury trusted in the friendship between Guatemala’s government and the Great Britain.  Friendship with English people? Also Aycinena says that Mr. Wyke received from his government the draft agreement, in which no territorial granting was mentioned, because England considered that could provoke interrogations from other nations, the agreement was about the boundaries between Guatemala and the English Establishment in Belize.  On the Clayton-Bulwer agreement of 1850 was stipulated that neither United States or England could take or exercise power over any part of Central America and for that reason did not want that the Americans participate in the negotiations with Guatemala, because they knew that they could not get the title deed of all Belize’s territory, at the end it was England sole purpose.

Aycinena, was or ingenuous, dreamer or incapable, to do not realize how England was “jumping” the Clayton-Bulwer agreement of 1850, and accepted and fulfilled the English orders to exclude the Americans from the negotiations in which 14,300 square miles of Guatemala’s territory were in game.  Also says in his letter that Mr. Wyke did all commentaries about the case and Aycinena for long time exposed the justice of Guatemala’s rights and asked, at least, some compensation for the territory granting.  In addition, Aycinena says that all was in vane; Mr. Wyke had specific orders and was not authorized to modify the same.  What I understand is that, because Mr. Wyke could not give not even a little bit to Aycinena, he was forced to accept the English petition.  Maybe, Aycinena thought that Her Majesty the Queen, would recompense his obedient services, and would take him up to the Great England, granting him with the Order of Sarstun in the rank of Great Collar Yaloch, but history judged him. 
 
On November 30, 1860 the frontier landmark of Belize’s territory started by the commissioners Manuel Cano Madrazo from Guatemala and Captain Enrique Wray from England; Manuel Perez Lasala also was appointed in the capacity of “arbitrator or mediator friend,” in case something arouse.  The landmark started at Sarstun River and in the Gracias a Dios torrents was built a lime stone pyramid as a divisor signal at the northern bank arm of Gracias a Dios torrent with a distance of 900 yards from its union with the Chocon arm, that form the Sarstun River.  At Belize river divisor signals at the center of the Garbutt torrents were built, two lime stone pyramids in each bank of the river.  The English commissioned Enrique Wray received orders from England to interrupt the landmark until new orders, they never came; consequently, the Guatemalan commissioned Cano Madrazo on May 1861 introduced his report declaring that only 29 lime stone pyramids were built and, a deed and a map were presented as evidence signed by both commissioners.  The report, deed and map clearly shows that the landmark and demarcation of the frontier with Belize’s territory neither in 1861 or never was concluded.

From 1798 England had move “the fences” and uprooted “the landmarks” established and built by the Spaniards at the concession region, according to the agreements between Spain and England and specified in the Article 6 agreement of 1783 and in the Article 2 agreement of 1786 (1st. despoiling, see map on page 2) .  England had advanced by the west and established camps and work places – wood chop – up to what is know today by the Aguas Turbias vertex and in places near to the Yaloch lagoon up to Belize river at level with Fallabon, today know as Melchor de Mencos, a region of approximately 2,480 square miles of extension (2nd despoiling, see map on page 3.)

English people call the timber merchant places “Bench”, which the slaves by the sound derivate the word “Benque.”  Later, in 1833 England advanced and occupied the south region and west of the Sibun River up to Sarstun River, about 7,600 square miles (3rd despoiling see map on page 3.)  In my opinion, in 1861 England did not continue with the landmark and demarcation of the frontier with Belize’s territory, because it was interested in establishing the key points, the Gracias a Dios torrents (longitude 1o 3`10” to the west of the Fort George, Belize) and the Garbutt torrents (longitude 0o 57`29” to the west of the Fort George, Belize); with these two points England could know how much territory it had possessed.

Meanwhile, in Belize’s territory the population of 12 thousand habitants had duplicated with the arrival of the Mayan refugees from Yucatan and the Creoles that ran from the Caste War on Yucatan.  Belize made its first census in 1861 and it show a population more than 25 thousand habitants, 10% African blacks, 21% mulatto, 7% Garifunas 4.5% whites and 1.5% were Hindus, Chinese and others.  England considers itself as the authentic owner of Belize’s territory (its economic establishment more productive in the American continent,) in 1862 was granted the status of “Crown’s colonies” under the name of British Honduras.

No everything was easy for England in its new colony; the Belizean Mayas were to start the war, because the English soldiers with the economic progress supported and leaded by English landowners were taking their lands, their way of life.  In this cruel fight it had been consolidated the exploitation and commercialization of mahogany and had started the harvest of sugar cane that the Creole refugees from Yucatan bring to Belize and which required long extensions of land for its production.  It was not the first time that the Belizean Mayas fight against Europeans, in one or two events before they had confronted against the Spaniards and many times against the English invaders.  The thousand of refugee Mayans located at the nor-east of Belize’s territory, today know as Corozal, and the Mexican Mayans in the other side of Hondo River, were the ones who frustrated the English invasion and spoliation of all Mayan region.

Since 1861 Guatemala’s government had initiated the negotiations, carrying its cross, so England fulfill with the agreed in Article 7 on Aycinena-Wyke agreement signed in 1859.  In said compensatory article or term was described the agreement in which England had to build a road from Belize up to Guatemala City.  England evasively answered at the beginning, alleging that in the Article 7 the agreement was too vague to be bind to fulfill.

Later, England changed its method and proposes to Guatemala’s government the construction of the road from the Belize City to its boundary over the Atlantic coast and Guatemala could continue the construction to its City; again they regret about the proposal, and then England proposes that both nations should equally pay for the construction.  The “ping pong” continue, until August 1863 an agreement was signed at London between Guatemala and England, in which English people compromised themselves to pay 50 thousand pound sterling, as long as were approved by the British Parliament.  If they were approved, five payments of 10 thousand pound sterling should be pay to Guatemala in order to fulfill the Article 7 agreement signed in 1859.  In addition, it was stipulated that both nations should ratified the agreement in a term no longer of 6 months.  Neither Guatemala nor England did it in the stipulated term, and when Guatemala ratified the same and asked to England to do it too, this one answered that England would not pay anything to Guatemala because the agreement had expired.

Meantime, at the nor-east of Belize’s territory the Mayans had send a strong offensive against English people and in 1866 in San Pedro battle, they were bind to move back from Corozal up to the coast city of Belize, which was the colonial city.  The English people were helped, by the troops from Jamaica, to hold back the Mayans; later on they accomplish it through the total destruction of villages and the killing of many clans.  The Mayans from central and south regions, little by little came in the process of English colonization, but exclusively dependents from harvest.

During this epoch a great economic progress existed in Belize, the English businessmen had invest in agro-industry projects and had installed three complexes for the sugar cane processing (sugar cane mill) in different areas of the north region.  The banana production had started in the plantations located at the south of the colony, but still the wood commercialization and extraction was the one who produced bigger earnings to England.  There was a lot of labor work, too much that there were for both, for English landowners and businessmen, the only problem was the many belligerent events, that the English people came and took from Mayans their lands and made them be part of their salary labor work, which was no normal for them.

Guatemala, at the arrival of the liberal regime of Justo Rufino Barrios in 1871, again took out the Aycinena-Wyke agreement to England, and said that the agreement still was in force, because the agreed on the Article 7 had not been accomplish, regulated for its execution in the additional agreement in 1863.  As a result, Guatemalan’s government proposed to England that this issue should be bind to an international “arbitration”, but England reject such proposal in 1860, declaring that England was exonerated to all compromised.  To Guatemalan’s government did not have other option that to introduce in 1884 to England an energy protest of “occupancy” that has in all Belize’s territory?

In 1880 decade, most of the forestry resources were ran out, but England still were trading mahogany, in a illicit way, from Quintana Roo and Peten, even with the decrease on the European demand.  Such deforestation was done by the stronger English company, talking about mahogany, La Belize State & Produce Company owner of 2,800 square miles (a million acres), the fifth part of Belize.

In 1893, England signed with Mexico a boundary agreement (Spenser-Mariscal) in which was established the Hondo River as boundary between Belize and Yucatan.  The Mexicans now had pretended to be the owners of on part of Belize, from Hondo River to Sibun River; according to them, the concession region by Spain by the agreements of 1783 and 1786 were granted to the Captaincy General of Yucatan and do not to the Captaincy General of Guatemala.  With the boundaries already established, the English company could not exploiting the precious wood and mahogany from Quintana Roo, but a greater demand from the Americans made it move the company to the territory of Peten so they could extract all the precious wood they wanted to then, sell it to the Americans.  The economy of the Central American countries made itself more dependent from the United States – which was considered as a powerful nation of first order – than from England.

England perfectly knew that Guatemala’s government had not authorized to the English companies to exploit their forestry resources in the territory of Peten, so it ignored it.  The English government was convinced that with the time most of foreign workers of Belize would settle their position and would stay as its subjects.  In addition, the frontier between Belize and Peten had not been mark, giving an excuse to England for such violation.  In my opinion, the Belizean-English people not only have been extracting the precious woods, archeological pieces, fauna and flora, for more than 113 years, England also has taken a farm that pertain to Peten.  Will Petén be the dispossession number 4?

In 1889-1890 Guatemala attended to the First American International Conference celebrated in Washington, D.C., United States and for the first time before an international forum declared that England had occupied the region from Sibun River to Sarstun River in the territory of Belize without the authorization of the government of Guatemala.

In 1898 England established an own government in the territory of Belize.

In 1900 the United States Senate approved the across the ocean channel construction in Nicaragua under the control, administration and property of the United States; but the “control” and “property” violated the Clayton-Bulwer agreement subscribed between gringos and English people in 1850.  In such agreement was established that neither both parts could never have or keep for themselves the exclusive control over the channel in Nicaragua, not even fortify, colonize, or possess any Central America territory.

The United States had its hands tie and still wanted to build the channel in Nicaragua, what take it to negotiate with England so they could abolish such agreement.  During the negotiations, Belize came out, and the Americans knew how England did not fulfill with the Article 7 or compensatory term of the agreement of 1859, and Guatemala’s government position about it.  What and how this both nations negotiated, just God knows, because in 1901 the agreement of Clayton-Bulwer 1850 with England and United States was totally abolished.

At the beginning of the XX century, England had initiated a gradual but current immigration of families from Asiatic colonies to Belize, India and Malaysia.  In 1916 England in war against the Germans, re-started the immigration of German and other European countries refugee families to Belize from the Great War (World War I).

The problem of boundary lines and landmark from the frontier of Belize still was a latent subject that was important to Guatemala and England.  In 1916 occurs a bloody fight in the frontier of Guatemala and Belize, which activate again the landmark of the same?  Guatemalan government appointed to Claudio Urrutia, an engineer, to introduce a detailed report about the position in which the divisor line was.  In 1931, cement bases were placed at the divisor line between Peten and Belize, so the English people could not be penetrating.



Foto Autor This Homepage was made by Luis DALLANEGRA PEDRAZA


PhD in Political Science and International Relations (National University of Rosario , Argentine). Professor and assessor in Degree, Post degree and Doctorate in the country and abroad. Director of the Center of International-Argentinean Studies (CIAS/CEINAR), and of the Argentine Review of International Relations, 1977-1981. International Observer of the International Committee of Support and Verification CIAV-OAS in the guerrilla's "demobilization" "contra" in Nicaragua, 1990. Director of Doctorate in International Relations, National University of Rosario , Rosario , Argentine, 2002-2005. Scientific Researcher of the "National Council of Scientific and Technical Researches" (NCSTR/CONICET), Argentine.


e-Mail: luisdallanegra@gmail.com or to evelynrtirado@hotmail.com
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© Richardson Escobar-Vega de Tirado, This Land is Mine: The Belize's Drama, (Guatemala, Edition of the Author, 1993), Translation: Ana Leticia Santos and  Marta Mena, http://www.blitz.com.gt.